Full Page Cache (FPC): Scaling Magento Part 1


The most important and often ignored factor to scaling is the quality of code. Well written code will scale better. The next most important factor is perhaps caching. There are many types of caches that developers, managers and store owners need to understand. Full Page Cache (FPC) is seen by store owners as a magic solution to speed issues. Understanding the benefits and compromises of a caching mechanism is important to understand scaling.

FPC Options

Magento Enterprise 1.x and Magento Open Source & Commerve 2.x, both have a FPC module inbuilt.

There are many plugins available for Magento Community 1.x. Some hosting providers will help setup a Varnish based FPC with appropriate hole punching.

Magento 2 has two mechanisms for FPC – php based (called FPC) and varnish. Varnish is the preferred option for production due to the architecture and speed of response.

The discussion below applies to all these mechanisms as well as to Magento 1.x and Magento 2.

What is Full Page Cache (FPC)?

FPC is a cache of a full HTML page – except variable content such as a login status or items in cart or stock status of a product or sometimes even price of a product. When a hit is encountered – i.e. the page required is in the cache, FPC will return very fast compared to when there is a miss i.e. the page is not in the cache, which will require re-generating the content. FPC may store the cache in files, but more likely for maximum benefit, it will be stored in memory.

FPC affects resource utilization – memory and CPU. As with all caches, we trade memory for CPU time.

Traditional FPC stores the page in Magento cache and is a part of Magento. Varnish stores the page HTML after it has been generated and is not a part of Magento. It is a separate process.

What FPC is not!

Let us understand FPC better

  • Memory needed to store the entire site in FPC
    Let us say each page is 100KB and you have 10000 pages to cache. That would take about 1GB of RAM. The problem is when the number of pages or page size starts rising above this, the RAM requirement goes up. So, if you now had 20000 pages (result of each option in layered navigation for example), you would need 2GB or if each page was 120KB the 20000 pages would need  4GB. Pages are not just products – they are category pages as well. If layered navigation is added the pages multiply fast as each combination is unique and needs to be stored independently. If you start exceeding the RAM available, you need to decide what to do when you hit the memory limit.
  • Cache warming.
    Cache warming is the process of automatically adding pages to the cache before a real visitor hit comes to the cached page. When a cache is cleared, you may need to warm the cache to make FPC effective early. Cache warming uses a crawler to artificially visit pages of a site. A typical crawler will recursively crawl the site starting from the home page. This sounds logical but here are some things to think through

    • If possible find the most likely pages you need to be in the cache and warm the cache with only those pages. This will give the maximum benefit.
    • If you cannot fit all the pages in memory, the use of crawling to warm the caches becomes a problem – they will recycle pages out of memory at random, not based on the end user popularity of the pages.
    • When the cache is being warmed your resource requirement in terms of CPU will rise as both the crawler and real traffic are being served.
    • If possible crawl the site in parallel – the earlier the pages get cached the more likely a visitor to a page will already be in the cache (scoring a hit).

Performance degradation on FPC full invalidation

The above figure shows the bad response immediately when a FPC that had built to 1.5GB was cleared completely. The top image is from redis usage graph from munin and the one below is AWS cloudwatch latency (time to serve a page) averaged per minute. The latency came down as AWS Autoscale added more instances, costing money.

  • Invalidating the cache :
    Magento automatically invalidates FPC (internal or varnish) by tagging or hashing the content with keys that refer to the type of content. For example, it may generate a tag / hash CATEGORY_123 if the page depends on category 123. Now, when category 123 changes, Magento sends out a invalidate message that says “all pages that have tag / hash CATEGORY_123 should be invalid”. Magento has a elaborate tag convention.
  • FPC and robotic crawlers (BOTS)
    Even if you do not use a crawler for warming, robotic crawlers on the internet (such as google’s indexer Googlebot) will start filling the FPC cache with pages they happen to crawl. It is our advice that a site with FPC should have robots.txt and a front end processor (nginx, WAF) restricting BOTs.
  • CPU and time needed to re-generate a page
    A FPC can fully invalidate (clear) due to a (p)html or css file changing or partially due to a data change such as a product update. A miss from FPC results in the page being regenerated. The CPU requirement for a miss is much higher than a hit. If a crawler is used to warm the cache or if traffic is high, CPU requirement can be quite high as the FPC fills up. Yet, the visitor experience is not good during this period. Using autoscale, this performance degradation can be contained to some extent as additional instances are launched to handle the high CPU requirement.
  • Discipline when using FPC – know when invalidation happens
    It is important to add discipline for code update as it has the worst effect on user experience.

    • Code update should be done at low traffic times.
    • Category changes should be carefully planned at low traffic times.
    • Magento indexing should be set to manual (M1) or on schedule (M2) with a cron running the indexer.

Our recommendation for FPC

  • Do not use a random crawler to warm the FPC cache. Use a page popularity based crawler to warm the cache if necessary.
  • Avoid using a crawler during high traffic – the crawler will compete for system resources with live traffic
  • If possible update code during low traffic times as it causes FPC to invalidate
  • If your site is horizontally scaled, pre-launch instances to your load balancer before invalidating FPC, either explicitly or indirectly, so the latency of starting an instance does not further worsen the user experience

Magento 1.x FPC Plugins

  1. Free Lesti FPC : Use this guide to install
  2. Magento connect search results for FPC

Should FPC be a part of scaling strategy?

FPC is concerned with speed. Scale is concerned with the process that helps the site add resources when needed. FPC helps in scalability by reducing the use of resources per hit to the website under certain conditions. It changes the dynamics of when and how many resources will be needed.

FPC has to be considered to be part of scaling strategy – but as one of many parts.

Read part 2 where we discuss other Magento caches.

Read the overview of our Magento scaling series here.

We can analyze your site for free

Schedule a call

Not happy with your website performance and want an expert to look at it?

  • We will analyze your site using public information.
  • We will ask you to give us a 1 day web server log file.
  • We will try to identify what steps if any you should take to improve your sites performance goals.

Transactional Email Deliverability of your Magento Store

The internet started with email and email continues to be a very important means of communication for a Magento site. Emails that are sent directly in relation to an activity on the website such as a registration or purchase – are called transactional emails. Transactional emails occupy a different place in the email marketing category and are governed by less strict rules worldwide.

Importance of Transactional Email for Magento stores

Deliverability of transactional emails is a key to customer satisfaction and loyalty. If a customer requesting a password reset does not get an email in time in the the inbox would result in possibly loosing the customer.

Why is Transaction Email Deliverability a problem?

If email is fundamental to internet why is email deliverability a issue?
In order to protect email infrastructure from spammers, many services created spam lists – IP addresses that have previously been used to spam and are blacklisted. There is no single authority with such lists, leading to the deliverability problem. The IP you get assigned by your cloud provider may not be the clean in all the lists and it is too difficult to find and much more difficult to get cleared. Transactional email providers come to the rescue – their business is to increase deliverbility.

What can be classified by a transactional email?

Newsletters, even opted in, do not classify as transactional email. If you do not send newsletters through Magento, all emails that go out will be transactional.
However, you maybe crossing the line if you send out upsell / crosssell in your email order confirmation for example.

Third party providers

There are many providers and it is a very competitive market a search on google for transactional email will get you many results and comparisons.
Here are a few recently updated comparisons

How to get started with transactional email for Magento?

  • Check if you have an existing subscription to a transactional email service – indirectly. For example, if you are hosted on softlayer, you may get sendgrid credits. If you use Mailchimp to send newsletters, you may have mandrill credits.
  • Signup for the service – most of them have a free tier
  • We think having a Magento plugin is not a requirement if you are self hosted on a VPC or better. Read on, we think using the SMTP service is better option than a plugin or code integration.

Before you install the Magento plugin, read this!

  1. Plugins add a drag to the system – like it or not, each plugin you add, contributes to a slowdown of Magento due to the architecture. Many plugin authors are guilty of passing in additional features into the plugin.
  2. Plugins for transactional emails are “inline” i.e. the email is sent while the purchaser is waiting for a confirmation. That is a dependency on an external system. Occasionally the service may have slowed down and that delay will be added to the wait for the customer.
  3. Local email systems are automatically configured to retry in case of upstream infrastructure failure. If configured at the system level, the email is sent only to the local system, form where it goes into a queue which the systems email service will relay. If for some reason the remote email service is not responding, the queue will remain active and a retry will be attempted after sometime.
  4. Do not select the service based on the availability of a Magento plugin – that is the least important part of the evaluation

How to setup

All providers use TLS for SMTP communication on port 587. It will be required to open port 587 in the firewall to ensure emails be sent out.

Note : Some cloud services notably Google Cloud Platform does not allow communication on ports 25 or 587. For such services you need to use a transactional email service provider that allows SMTP communication over a non standard port.

Use the guide below to get your username and password and then use the steps to setup postfix

For Mandrill

Username : mandrill username
Password : Get Key (Dashboard->Get API Keys->NewAPI Key)
Domain :

For Amazon SES

Username & Password :
Domain (as per region, this is for US West) : []:
Domain verification :

For Sendgrid :

Get this certificate and store in /etc/postfix/ssl
username : sendgrid account username
password : sendgrid account password

postfix setup

    1. Ensure SASL authentication package like cyrus is installed.
    2. Ensure you have a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). The command hostname -f should report a host.domain type of name. It is preferred you use the domain you are sending from
    3. Ensure postfix is installed (and sendmail is not)
    4. Edit /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd and enter SMTP_DOMAIN, username and password as per the transactional email platform.
    5. chmod 600 /etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
    6. psotmap /etc/postfix/sasl_passswd
    7. edit /etc/postfix/ and add the following to the bottom of the file
# enable SASL authentication
smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes
# tell Postfix where the credentials are stored
smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
# use STARTTLS for encryption
relayhost =<refer platform info>
## For mandrill
smtp_use_tls = no
## For sendgrid
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/ssl/gd_bundle-g2-g1.crt
## For Anazon SES
smtp_use_tls = yes
smtp_tls_security_level = encrypt
smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
  1. restart the postfix service
  2. test by sending an email and watching the result in /var/log/maillog
minify css js offline

Minify css and js for Magento as a build process

How to improve page load speed without server overhead so you can serve more pages.

Need for a build?

Magento being written in php, an interpretive language, the need to build is not essential for deployment. Moreover, since many small store owners are not technical or do not have a full time technical team, solutions that just work inline are preferred. For example, using plugins for css and js minify, or transfer to CDN as and when needed inline, or even use Google’s excellent pagespeed plugin.
Unfortunately, each one of these inline steps though improve page load speeds, result in a ever-so-slight slow down of the server each time. On a high traffic site, this results in inconsistent performance and user experience. We even zip the static content in .gz files so the web server (nginx in our case) does not have to spend a few milliseconds each time – assuming ofcourse you do not have a CDN that can zip.

Grunt, the task builder

We have used Grunt ( as a task builder. Grunt is a popular javascript task builder written in nodejs. We use grunt to do many release oriented activities – packaging a release, installing a release, minify css, js, etc. In this article – a first of a series we plan – we will go through the process of installation of grunt and offer a solution to minify js and css flles as well as optimize images in the skin directory.

Installing grunt

  • Install nodejs and npm
    curl -sL | sudo bash -
    sudo yum install nodejs npm
  • Install grunt
    sudo npm install -g grunt-cli
  • Download our Gruntfile.js and related code
    mkdir /scripts
    cd /scripts
    git clone
    cp –r gruntformagento/src/* .

Run grunt to minify css and js (and more)

cd /scripts
grunt optimize
Typical output :
Running "copy:skin" (copy) task
Created 229 directories, copied 1769 files

Running "copy:js" (copy) task
Created 197 directories, copied 893 files

Running "uglify:skin" (uglify) task
>> 30 files created.

Running "uglify:js" (uglify) task
>> 301 files created.

Running "cssmin:skin" (cssmin) task
>> 149 files created. 2.34 MB ? 1.77 MB

Running "imagemin:skin" (imagemin) task
Minified 1412 images (saved 400.26 kB)

Running "compress:skinjs" (compress) task
>> Compressed 32 files.

Running "compress:skincss" (compress) task
>> Compressed 155 files.

Running "compress:js" (compress) task
>> Compressed 332 files.

Done, without errors.

What is done by optimize :

  • Create 2 directories skin.min and js.min initially with identical content as skin and js respectively
  • Run the minifyfor css and js on the skin.min and js.min directories. .min.js files are not minified.
  • Run image optimizer on skin (png,jpeg)
  • Generate .gz gzipped files – for static delivery of gzip. See note below on nginx configuration.

Update Magento Web URLs

Update the Magento unsecure and secure skin and js URLs to point to skin.min and js.min respectively where minified content is kept.

Update nginx configuration

nginx configuration to load .gz static content if it exists

#/* static content can have expiry set to long */
location ~* \.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|css|js|ico|swf|woff|woff2|svg|TTF)$ {
gzip_static on;
#access_log off;
log_not_found off;
expires 360d;

Gzip_static on tells nginx to serve the .gz file of a static file it exists rather than nginx compressing it.

Run optimizer on images in media/wysiwyg

grunt media
copy optimized images from media.min/wysiwyg to media/wysiwyg manually


We firmly believe in creating a documented release process. And Grunt with our Gruntfile.js goes a long way in making this a reality. In this article we have introduced the minfication, image optimization and gzip compression of static files. Try it and let us know if you have any suggestions.

This script can be run directly on the live server, but make sure you do it at a low traffic time.